Rabu, 27 Mei 2009

Simple Future Tense

The Simple Future is formed with will + the base form of the verb.

affirmative short form

I will > I'll >
You will > You'll >
He will > He'll >
She will > She'll > stay.
It will > It'll >
We will > We'll >
You will > You'll >
They will > They'll >

negative short forms

I will not > I'll not > I won't >
You will not > You'll not > You won't >
He will not > He'll not > He won't >
She will not > She'll not > She won't > stay.
It will not > It'll not > It won't >
We will not > We'll not > We won't >
You will not > You'll not > You won't >
They will not > They'll not > They won't >

Notes on the form of the Simple Future Tense

1. Shall and will

Will is used with all persons, but shall can be used as an alternative with I and we in pure future reference.

Shall is usually avoided with you and I:


You and I will work in the same office.

2. Contractions

Shall weakens to /S@l/ in speech, but does not contract to 'll in writing. Will contracts to 'll in writing and in fluent, rapid speech after vowels (I'll, we'll, you'll, etc.) but 'll can occur after consonants. So we might find 'll used: e.g.

- after names: Tom'll be here soon.

- after common nouns: The concert'll start in a minute.

- after question-words: When'll they arrive?

3. Negatives

Will not contracts to 'll not or won't; shall not contracts to shan't:


We won't or shan't go. (I/We will not or shall not go).

In American English shan't is rare and shall with a future reference is unusual.

4. Future Tense

When we use will/shall for simple prediction, they combine with verbs to form tenses in the ordinary way:


Simple Future: I will see

Future Progressive: I will be seeing

Future Perfect: I will have seen

Future Perfect Progressive: I will have been seeing

Uses of the 'will/shall' future

1. 'Will/shall' for prediction briefly compared with other uses

Will and shall can be used to predict events, for example, to say what we think will happen, or to invite prediction:


Tottenham will win on Saturday.

It will rain tomorrow. Will house prices rise again next year?

I don't know if I shall see you next week.

This is sometimes called 'the pure future', and it should be distinguished from many other uses of will and shall: e.g.


I'll buy you a bicycle for your birthday. [promise]

Will you hold the door open for me please? [request]

Shall I get your coat for you? [offer]

Shall we go for a swim tomorrow? [suggestion]

Just wait - you'll regret this! [threat]

Though all the above examples point to future time, they are not 'predicting'; they are 'coloured' by notions of willingness, etc. Will/shall have so many uses as modal verbs that some grammarians insist that English does not have a pure future tense.

2. 'Will' in formal style for scheduled events

Will is used in preference to be going to when a formal style is required, particularly in the written language:


The wedding will take place at St Andrew's on June 27th. The reception will be at the Anchor Hotel.

3. 'Will/shall' to express hopes, expectations, etc.

The future is often used after verbs and verb phrases like assume, be afraid, be sure, believe, doubt, expect, hope, suppose, think:


I hope she'll get the job she's applied for.

The Present with a future reference is possible after hope:


I hope she gets the job she's applied for.

Lack of certainty, etc. can be conveyed by using will with adverbs like perhaps, possibly, probably, surely:


Ask him again. Perhaps he'll change his mind.

Time adverbials with the 'will/shall' future tense

Some adverbials like tomorrow are used exclusively with future reference; others like at 4 o'clock, before Friday, etc. are used with other tenses as well as the Future:


I'll meet you at 4 o'clock.

Now and just can also have a future reference:


This shop will now be open on June 23rd. (a change of date)

I'm nearly ready. I'll just put my coat on.

I will sing

The simple future tense is often called will, because we make the simple future tense with the modal auxiliary will.
How do we make the Simple Future Tense?

The structure of the simple future tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb WILL + main verb
invariable base
will V1

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the simple future tense:
subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I will open the door.
+ You will finish before me.
- She will not be at school tomorrow.
- We will not leave yet.
? Will you arrive on time?
? Will they want dinner?

When we use the simple future tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:
I will I'll
you will you'll
he will
she will
it will he'll
we will we'll
they will they'll

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we contract with won't, like this:
I will not I won't
you will not you won't
he will not
she will not
it will not he won't
she won't
it won't
we will not we won't
they will not they won't
How do we use the Simple Future Tense?
No Plan

We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. Look at these examples:

* Hold on. I'll get a pen.
* We will see what we can do to help you.
* Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.

In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at the time of speaking.

We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it:

* I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow.
* I think I will have a holiday next year.
* I don't think I'll buy that car.


We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples:

* It will rain tomorrow.
* People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.
* Who do you think will get the job?


When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking. Examples:

* I'll be in London tomorrow.
* I'm going shopping. I won't be very long.
* Will you be at work tomorrow?

WSM Image
Note that when we have a plan or intention to do something in the future, we usually use other tenses or expressions, such as the present continuous tense or going to.


Senin, 25 Mei 2009


Advertisement is information for persuad and motivate a people so that it will anracted. Them to the service and things that are affered.

Function advertisement are :
- Promotion
- Communication
- Information

In making advertisement, keep the following points :
1. Language of advertisement

* Using the correct or suitable world
* Using the interesting expression and suggestive
* Using positive cannotations
* Text of advertisement snold directly to the go

2. Advertisement content

* Objective and hanest
* Brief and clear
* Don't to allude group and to other producer
* Attractive attention


News Item

Is a report of recent occurences; information of something that has lately taken place, or of something before unknown; recent information about specific and timely events.

Other definition

* Information about recent events or happenings, espespecially as reported by newspapaers, periodical, radio, or television.

Special Function

* To inform read or listener or viewer about events of the day which are considered news worth or important.

Generic Structure

1. News worthy event:
* Recount the event in summary form.

2. Background event:
* Elaborate what happened, to whom I what circumstances.

3. Source:
* Comments by participants in witness and authorities expert on the event.

4. Form:
· Using simple present & past tense (but generally prefers simple present tense)


• Short, brief information about story captured in head line.
• Use material process to retell the event.
• Using saying verbs like say, tell, inform.
• Focus on circumstances.
• Use of projecting verbal process in source stager.
• Using action verbs, like, escape, go, run.

Example (a brief sentence cut of some news item):

1. His family has had no news of his whereabouts for months.
2. The job requirements were news to him.
3. The news of the famous actor’s death was greatly exaggerated.


Sabtu, 23 Mei 2009

Gratitude, Compliment, and Congratulation

Gratitude, the way to said thank you to other people.

  • è To express gratitude you can say :
  • * Thank you
  • * I’m greatful
  • * I want to thank …
  • *I want to express my gratitude to …
  • * I keep forgetting to thank you for ..

  • è Respone of expressing :
  • * You are welcome
  • * Don’t mention it
  • * Not at all
  • * It was nothing at all
  • * No problem
  • * Glad to be help

Congratulation, to said “good” for other people.

è To express congratulation you can say :

* Let me congratulate you

* Congratulation on your success

* Good

* That’s great

* Isn’t that wonderful

* How fortunate

* Splendid

* Prety good

è Respone of expressing :

* Thank you

* Thanks, I needed that

* That’s very kind of you

* You’ve made my day

* Some to you


Example congratulation :

Dialogue 1 :

Ais : Who won the football match yesterday?

Ari : Our team did. We won three to one

Ais : Congratulation. I’m glad to hear it

Ari : Thank you

Dialoge 2:

Milda : Happy birthday, Marry. Many happy return of the day

Eri : Thank you, Milda. You are the first me who congratulates me

Milda : Oh realy? Here is a little present for you. I hope you like it.

Eri : Thank you very much. You are realy my best friend.

Compliment, to give praising to other people. Some people use compliment to “better up” some day or to flatter in order increase good will.

You compliment some one, for example :

  • Ø On his / her general appearance

  • Ø If you notice something new about the person’s appearance

  • Ø When you visit someone’s

  • Ø House for the first time

  • Ø When other people do their best

è Expressing :

* What a nice dress

* You look great

* You look very nice

* Good grades

* Excellent

* Nice work

Gratitude, thankfulness, or appreciation is a positive emotion or attitude in acknowledgment of a benefit that one has received or will receive. The experience of gratitude has historically been a focus of several world religions, and has been considered extensively by moral philosophers such as Adam Smith. The systematic study of gratitude within psychology only began around the year 2000, possibly because psychology has traditionally been focused more on understanding distress rather than understanding positive emotions. However, with the advent of the positive psychology movement, gratitude has become a mainstream focus of psychological research. The study of gratitude within psychology has focused on the understanding of the short term experience of the emotion of gratitude (state gratitude), individual differences in how frequently people feel gratitude (trait gratitude), and the relationship between these two aspects.



Greeting (also called accosting) is an act of communication in which human beings (as well as other members of the animal kingdom) intentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in contact with each other. While greeting customs are highly culture- and situation-specific and may change within a culture depending on social status and relationship, they exist in all known human cultures. Greetings can be expressed both audibly and physically, and often involve a combination of the two. This topic excludes military and ceremonial salutes but includes rituals other than gestures.

Greetings are often, but not always, used just prior to a conversation.

Some epochs and cultures have had very elaborate greeting rituals, e.g., greeting of a king.

Secret societies have clandestine greeting rituals that allow members to recognize common membership.


Person A: “Hi, my name is Intan. It’s nice to meet you.”

Person B: “I’m Wendy. It’s a pleasure to meet you, Tan.”

Person A: “What do you do for a living Wen?”

Person B: “I work at the bank.”

Two friends meeting

Friends often say "Hi" to each other. Then they often ask a general question, such as "How are you?" or "How are things?" or "How's life?"

The reply to this question is normally positive.

"Fine thanks, and you?"

"Fine thanks, what about yourself?"

"Not bad." Or "Can't complain."

Greeting people you don't know

You can use "Hello" with people you don't know, but a more formal greeting is "Good morning / afternoon / evening."

The other person normally replies with the same greeting as you have used and then makes polite conversation, such as "How was your trip?" or "Did you find our office easily?"

Introducing yourself

How do you introduce yourself??
-Let me introduce myself, my name is Intan Ayu…
-Hello, I’m Intan Ayu…
-Hi, I’m Intan Ayu. You can call me Intan.
-Hello, my name is Intan Ayu….

At an informal party

"Hello, I'm Maria." Or "Hello, my name's Maria."

The reply could be:

"Hi, I'm Sarah." Or "Hello Maria, I'm Sarah." Or "Nice to meet you, I'm Sarah."

At work-related events

"I'd like to introduce myself. I'm Maria, from english@home."

Or, "Let me introduce myself. I'm Maria from english@home."

The reply could be:

"Nice to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations."

"Pleased to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations."

"How do you do? I'm Peter Mitchell from Mitchell Creations."

Introducing other people

Introducing a friend to a work colleague

"Sarah, have you met my colleague John?"

"Sarah, I'd like you to meet my colleague John."

Sarah says:

"Pleased to meet you, John." Or "Nice to meet you, John."

John could say:

"Nice to meet you too, Sarah." Or "Hello, Sarah."

Introducing clients

"Mr Mitchell, I'd like to introduce you to my manager, Henry Lewis."

Mr Mitchell could then say:

"How do you do?" and Henry Lewis also says "How do you do?"

Or Mr Mitchell could say:

"Pleased to meet you." Or "Good to meet you."

Speaking Tip

"How do you do?" is quite formal for British English speakers and the reply to this question is to repeat the phrase, "How do you do?" (as strange as that may sound!)

At a more informal party

When you introduce two of your friends to each other, you can simply say, "John, this is Sarah."

Cultural considerations

At work, one person may have higher status - your boss, or a client, for example. It's polite to address them as Mr / Ms until the situation becomes more informal.

If someone says, "Please call me (Intan)", you know you can use first names. If someone uses your first name, you can use their first name too.

People in European and English-speaking cultures often shake hands when they meet someone for the first time.

How do you end your conversation?????????

Well, I should be going now. See you.
I’m sorry, but I have to go now. It’s been nice talking with you. See you later..
Well, I must be off now. I’ll talk to you later!
Ups.., look at the time! Sorry, I can’t chat right now. I have to go.

The finally word of conversation…
See you later/ tomorrow/ next week, etc..
Have a good time.
Good bye..
Bye bye..
Be careful, take a care.
Good bye, make a call, will you?

* Don't forget to smile! :-)


Expressing Sympathy

Sympathy is a social affinity in which one person stands with another person, closely understanding his or her feelings. The word derives from the Greek συμπάθεια (sympatheia), from συν (syn) "together" + πάθος (pathos), in this case "suffering" (from πάσχω - pascho, "to be affected by, to suffer"). It also can mean being affected by feelings or emotions. Thus the essence of sympathy is that one has a strong concern for the other person. Sympathy exists when the feelings or emotions of one person are deeply understood and appreciated by another person.

The psychological state of sympathy is closely linked with that of compassion, empathy and empathic concern. Although empathy and sympathy are often used interchangeably, a subtle variation in ordinary usage can be detected. To empathize is to respond to another's perceived emotional state by experiencing feelings of a similar sort. Sympathy not only includes empathizing (but not always), but also entails having a positive regard or a non- fleeting concern for the other person.

In common usage, sympathy is usually making known one's understanding of another's unhappiness or suffering, especially when it is grief.

Sympathy can also refer to being aware of other (positive[disambiguation needed]) emotions as well.

In a broader sense, it can refer to the sharing of political or ideological sentiments, such as in the phrase "a communist sympathizer".

What To Say... How To Help

Expressing sympathy...
So your best friend just lost her teenage son in a car wreck... What a tragedy! You are just devastated and so saddened by the news.

But, Geez! What do you say to your friend? How can you possibly help or lessen her pain for her? Well, you can't, but there are things you can say or do to provide genuine support for a fellow human in need.

And there are some things you should never say to a bereaved person.

So what is the best way to express sympathy when a friend or loved one has suffered a tragic loss? What should you say to them? How best to lend support or offer to help?

Many bereaved people have reported that certain things said or done by those offering sympathy had a great impact on them... either positive or negative. We present in this section a guide to help you out with one of life's most difficult challenges... expressing sympathy.

Read on for some useful guidelines:


Expressing sympathy...
Let's face it. Bereavement is simply a sensitive, awkward subject. Yes, you do care, and yes, you want to help... but how? How can you really help this person out?

Well, the answer is that you can't. What you can do is lend an ear, provide support, and just let them know you care. You really cannot fix anything for them, so don't even try. What you can do is offer to help in some way... and make good on the offer. Oftentimes, you might hear a sympathetic friend say "Just call if you need anything". This lets them off the hook. They express blanket offers of help, then exit the scene as quickly as possible.

The only problem is that offer of help, even if sincere, leaves the burden on the bereaved. Not only are they too distraught to sort out who offered to help, they don't even know if it was a sincere offer. So they won't call, even if they really could use some practical help.

Instead, we propose the following approach if you want to help your friend out: instead of saying "call me if you need anything," say "I could help by (cutting the grass this Friday, or taking the kids for the weekend, or picking up people at the airport for you)".

Let them know of a particular (and useful) task you would be willing to provide, and offer to do it. Then follow up! Call a few days later and offer again, making sure to name a specific date and time "if that's convenient for you". An example: "I would like to bring over dinner on Wednesday if that's convenient".

The reality is that most any bereaved person could use a little help with household chores or funeral arrangements. In times of early bereavement, just keeping the household going can be overwhelming. Simple but important tasks just don't seem that important. If you really want to help the family out, this is how you can.


Expressing sympathy...
  • Take over a Honey Bak'd Ham, or a plate of sandwiches... hand it to them in person, with a hug.
  • Bake 3 dozen homemade chocolate chip cookies.
  • Offer to clean up the place for them... and do it (yes, even the bathroom).
  • Spend an evening playing cards with them, or putting together a jigsaw puzzle or art project.
  • Make a list of all their sympathy gifts, who gave what, and offer to help write thank you cards.
  • Take the kids to the zoo, bowling or the movies.
  • Take the bereaved person out for a walk in the fresh air. Let him talk and don't interrupt.
  • Sit them down to help pay the bills and balance the checkbook.
  • Help them make a "to-do" list for the coming week.
  • Let them know you are bringing over a spaghetti dinner one night, complete with salad and garlic bread.
  • Offer a big hug and let them cry on your shoulder... and don't tell them "everything will be alright".
  • If you feel that your friend is "losing it" and unable to cope or function, or using drugs or too much alcohol to cope, urge them to get professional help, and help them find the resources. (Books, support groups, counseling).
  • Cut and trim the lawn. Rake the leaves. Wash the car.
  • Help make a grocery list, then go do the shopping for them.
  • Even if you have "been there for them", a written letter or note of condolence can also be a helpful and comforting gesture. (See the section on sympathy letters, or send one of our comforting sympathy cards).
  • Send or deliver in person a thoughtful sympathy gift.
  • (Later in bereavement): Take your friend out to dinner or a movie. Don't abandon them because you might feel a little awkward. Bereavement takes a long time. Be patient and let your friend know you will be there for the long haul. Never tell them you think it is time for them to move on. Grief is personal and each person has her own private timetable for her "griefwork".

Expressing sympathy...
Although he may not express his thanks to you right now, your friend will always remember you were there to help them weather the storm.


Descriptive Text



The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. As part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County.


The Golden Gate Bridge had the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed in 1937 and has become an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco and California. Since its completion, the span length has been surpassed by eight other bridges. It still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States, after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of America’s Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.


Ok, jadi dari contoh teks diatas kita tahu bahwa sebuah DESCRIPTIVE TEXT mempunyai GENERIC STRUCTURE sebagai berikut :

  1. Identification : Identifies phenomenon ( Mengidentifikasi / pengenalan fenomena / hal yang dideskripsikan)
  2. Description : Menggambarkan bagian, kualitas, maupun ciri – ciri)

Dari contoh DESCRIPTIVE TEXT diatas, kita juga bisa mengambil kesimpulan teantang ciri – ciri DESCRIPTIVE TEXT sebagai berikut :

  • The Use of Simple Present Tense (Penggunaan Simple Present Tense)
  • Focus on Specific Participant (Fokus kepada Hal / orang / tempat secara khusus)


Modals in the past

can't have could could have couldn't couldn't have
didn't need to had to may have may not have might have
might not have must have needn't have ought not to have ought to have
should have shouldn't have would have would not

can't have


e.g. I can't have lost my keys! (I'm sure I didn't)



e.g. When I was a teenager, I could go out as late as I wanted.

general ability

e.g. Tom could walk by the age of 8 months.

could have

possibility, but did not happen

e.g. I could have passed my driving test if I'd really tried.


e.g. I guess it could have been Sandra on the phone.



e.g. When I was a teenager, I couldn't stay out as late as I wanted.

general ability

e.g. I couldn't walk until I was 2.

ability in a particular situation

e.g. I tried hard but I couldn't persuade him to go to the party with us.

couldn't have possibility/ability

e.g. I couldn't possibly have passed my driving test, even if I'd tried harder.


e.g. It couldn't have been Sandra on the phone, could it?

with comparative adjectives

e.g. I couldn't have asked for better weather on my wedding day.


e.g. I couldn't have left the dog in the car for long (so I didn't).

didn’t need to

unnecessary action not done

e.g. As I was alone this weekend, I didn't need to do any cooking (so I didn't).

had to

obligation (past form of must)

e.g. I couldn't go out last night because I had to do my homework.

may have


e.g. I guess I may have been a bit hard on her when she came home an hour late.

may not have


e.g. He may not have found out yet that he has passed the test.

might have

possibility (didn't happen)

e.g. You might have been killed!


e.g. I guess I might have been a bit hard on her when she came home an hour late.

annoyance at someone's failure to do something

e.g. You might have told me that you had invited all your colleagues round for dinner!

might have known + would (idiom to ironically express that somebody's action was typical)

e.g. I might have known that he would finish with me as soon as he found out I wasn't wealthy!

might not have


e.g. He may not have found out yet that he has passed the test.

must have


e.g. He must have known how much it was going to cost. (I'm sure he knew.)

with surely in exclamations

e.g. Surely he must have known how much it was going to cost!

needn't have

neunnecessary action that was actually done e.g. Oh, you needn't have do the washing up!

ought not to have

criticism (more common is shouldn't have)

e.g. You ought not to have been so frank with him.

ought to have

expectation (should have is more common)

Why is she late? She ought to have arrived by now!

should have


Why is she late? She should have arrived by now!

should have + verbs of thinking

e.g. I should have thought you knew.

with be and adjectives, describing chance

e.een staying in the same hostel last month.g. It was weird that you should have b

criticism (you didn't do something, but it would have been the right thing to do)

e.g. The party was such fun last night! You should have come!

shouldn't have


e.g. You shouldn't have been so frank with him.

polite expression of thanks on receiving a gift or favour

"Here's a bottle of wine for you"

"Oh, you really shouldn't have!"

would have

events in the past that did not happen

e.g. I wouldn't have gone out with him, but he didn't ask me.


e.g. Oh, that would have been Sarah on the phone just now.

would not unwillingness

e.g. I asked Tom to close the window, but he wouldn't do it.