Minggu, 07 Juni 2009

Making Written Announcement

Announcement is something said, written or printed to make known what has happened or (more often) what will happen.

In writing an announcement, keep the following points :

· The title/type of event.

· Date/time.

· Place.

· Who to contact.

Example of announcement :

School Announcement

Saturday morning basketball matches will begin on Saturday, January 1. the events will run from 09.00 – 11.00am for the next four weeks. The final tournament will be held on February 8. for more information, contact Intan (0857) 1234567.

Kartini’s Day

Monday, April 21, is Kartini’s day. To celebrate it, each class must present a couple of boy and girl. They have to wear and perform the traditional costumes. Also, there will be a cooking competition. Each class present two groups, i.e one group of boys and one group of girls. Each group consist of 3 – 4 students. The categories for judging will be : best of show and creativity. Winners will receive prizes at 02.00pm in the school hall. For more information, please confirm your class teacher.

*don't forget to say THANK YOU


Sabtu, 06 Juni 2009

Expressing Happiness

Happiness is a state of mind or feeling such as contentment, satisfaction, pleasure, or joy. A variety of philosophical, religious, psychological and biological approaches have been taken to defining happiness and identifying its sources.

Philosophers and religious thinkers have often defined happiness in terms of living a good life, or flourishing, rather than simply as an emotion. Happiness in this older sense was used to translate the Greek Eudaimonia, and is still used in virtue ethics. In everyday speech today, however, terms such as well-being or quality of life are usually used to signify the classical meaning, and happiness usually refers[citation needed] to the felt experience or experiences that philosophers historically called pleasure.

While direct measurement of happiness presents challenges, tools such as The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire have been developed by researchers. Positive psychology researchers use theoretical models that include describing happiness as consisting of positive emotions and positive activities, or that describe three kinds of happiness: pleasure, engagement, and meaning.

Research has identified a number of attributes that correlate with happiness. These include relationships and social interaction, parenthood, marital status, religious involvement, age, income (but mainly up to the point where survival needs are met), and proximity to other happy people. Happiness economics suggests that measures of public happiness should be used to supplement more traditional economic measures when evaluating the success of public policy.



-Oh, I'm so happy.

-I can't say how pleased I am.

-I had a splendid time there.

-What a marvelous place I 've ever seen.

-It's an outstanding adventure.

-It's an interesting experience.

-It's a sensational trip.






-That's terrific!

-Smashing (British English)


simple Present and Simple Past

Simple Present


VERB] + s/es in third person


  • You speak English.
  • Do you speak English?
  • You do not speak English.

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.


  • I play tennis.
  • She does not play tennis.
  • Does he play tennis?
  • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 9 AM.
  • When does the train usually leave?
  • She always forgets her purse.
  • He never forgets his wallet.
  • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
  • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.


  • Cats like milk.
  • Birds do not like milk.
  • Do pigs like milk?
  • California is in America.
  • California is not in the United Kingdom.
  • Windows are made of glass.
  • Windows are not made of wood.
  • New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.


  • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
  • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
  • When do we board the plane?
  • The party starts at 8 o'clock.
  • When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.


  • I am here now.
  • She is not here now.
  • He needs help right now.
  • He does not need help now.
  • He has his passport in his hand.
  • Do you have your passport with you?


The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.


  • You only speak English.
  • Do you only speak English?



  • Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
  • Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom.

Simple Past


[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs


  • You speak English.
  • Do you speak English?
  • You do not speak English.

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.


  • I saw a movie yesterday.
  • I didn't see a play yesterday.
  • Last year, I traveled to Japan.
  • Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
  • Did you have dinner last night?
  • She washed her car.
  • He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.


  • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
  • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
  • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.


  • I lived in Brazil for two years.
  • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
  • They sat at the beach all day.
  • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
  • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
  • A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.


  • I studied French when I was a child.
  • He played the violin.
  • He didn't play the piano.
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
  • She worked at the movie theater after school.
  • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."


  • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
  • He didn't like tomatoes before.
  • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
  • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.


  • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
  • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.

When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.


  • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.


The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.


  • You just called Debbie.
  • Did you just call Debbie?



  • Tom repaired the car. Active
  • The car was repaired by Tom. Passive


Rabu, 03 Juni 2009

Procedure text

Procedures help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions eg step by step method to germinate seeds. The text below is an example of a procedure. The labels show the structure and language features of procedure text.

Procedures begin by outlining an aim or goal.

Sometimes there is a list of the materials and equipment needed.

The steps are then listed in order.

Example of a procedure: shows the structure and language features of a procedure text.

Writing procedures

When writing procedures you should:

• use present tense eg spray

• include technical terms when you need to eg friable

• use words that tell the reader how, when and where to perform the task eg fill, firmly.

Use the sample procedure to answer the following questions.

1 List two words from the text that are written in present tense.

2 List as many words as you can that indicate how, when and where the task should be carried out.

Check your answers

Practice writing a procedure by writing instructions for someone else to:

• start a lawnmower

• make a banana smoothie

• use a microscope

• your choice.

Write a draft using the procedure sample as a model.


How to Gain People Attention Orally

Express Attention :

1. Attention, please ….
2. May/ can I have your attention, please ?
3. Excuse me.
4. Look here.
5. Listen to me, please!
6. Waiter ?
7. I’m sorry, but….
8. Every body, look here !

Attention to show moment some body. Want to talk the important something or one announcement or to need something.

Example :

Teacher : Attention, please. Today we will watch a movie in the self acces center.
What do you think ?
Students: That’s great !


Making Appointments

Making appointments is a promise that is made by someone in his/ her life to someone or other people.

may refer to a number of things, including the following:
  • An appointment is a time reserved for something such as a doctor visit, much like a reservation.
  • An appointment, in government refers to the assignment of a person by an official to perform a duty, such as a presidential appointment of a judge to a court. This may also happen for an office which is normally elected, but has an unexpected vacancy. A person appointed but not yet in office is a designee.
  • The power of appointment, in law, is the ability of a testator to select another person to dispose of the testator's property.
  • An appointment of clergy, in Christianity, is made by a bishop to a particular ministry setting, particularly in denominations which practice episcopal forms of church government and polity (such as Anglicanism and United Methodist Church.) Typically, a pastor is appointed to a particular church or parish.
  • Appointment is used to describe a system of selecting candidates in which the choice is made by an individual or panel rather than by a poll of the populace in general (election), or through random selection (allotment/sortition) as used to select juries.

Making an appointment ( formal )

1. I’d like to make an appointment with ….
2. I’d like to make an appointment to see ….
3. I’d like you to come and see me ….
4. I want to make an appointment to see ….

Accepting an appointment

1. All right, see you there.
2. No problem, I’m free on.
3. Be there on time.
4. I’ll wait for your there.
5. It’s a deal.

Concelling an appointment

1. I’m sorry, I’m very busy.
2. I’m terribly sorry I have to put off my appointment.
3. I’m affraid, I have to postpone my appointment with tomorrow morning.
Making an appointment is making a plan to do something with someone or people for now or future.

Making an appointment ( informal )

1. Can I come and see you ?
2. I’ll be there ….
3. What about …. ( Thursday ) ?

Changing an appointment

1. Could we change the day ( time) of the meeting ?
2. Would you mind if we change the day of the playing futsal?

Example :

Eri : Rere, I have a serious problem. I need to talk to you. Could we meet today?
Rere : what time ?
Eri : After we have a course.
Rere : Ok, I’ll be there.


How To Invite People Orally

Invitation is expression of to urge someone or other people.

Formula :

Let’s + be +adj
Let’s + V.base + N

1. Let’s speak English !
2. Let’s sing a pop song !
3. Let’s be happy !
4. Let’s be smart !


I’d like to invite you to come to my birthday party.
Are you free on Sunday morning? Would you like to jogging with me?
I was wondering if you’d like to come to my new home this afternoon.
We’re going to have a religious meeting tonight; we’d love you to come.

Question tag

1. A: Let’s go to the beach, shall we ?
B: That’s a good idea.
2. A: Let’s be happy, shall we ?
B: All right.

Example :

1. I’d like to invite you to my birthday party.
Can you drop by my house after school ?
3. Would you like to attend the meeting ?
4. I wonder if you’d like to come to my wedding party.

Invitation is request / ask someone for going to do something.

Kinds of invitation :
1. Spoken
2. Written

Invitation use future tense

Usually in card invitation

1. Purpose
2. Time
3. Place

Example :

Happy birthday card, wedding card, est.

Respon of Invitation:

Receive Invitation :
1. All right
2. I like that
3. I’d love to
4. I’d like to
5. I’d be happy/ glad to accept.
6. Yes, I’d be delighted to.
7. Yes, that would be nice.

Refuse Invitation :
1. I am sorry I can’t
2. I’d like to, but….
3. I am afraid I can’t
4. No, let’s not do it.
5. I’d like to, but I can’t
6. I’m afraid I’m busy.


Milda : Would you like to go camping with us next holiday ?
Elisa : I’d love to.
Milda : Really.
Rere : yes.
Milda : Ok…. I am waiting you in my house, tomorrow.


Would you like to go to cinema with me tonight ?
Would you like +to + V 1 + o/c ?


Thank you. I’d love to.
Yes, thank you. What time?
Sounds great.
That would be wonderful.
All right.
I’d love to, thanks. Where do you want to meet?
I am glad be able to accept.
That’s a good idea. What time do we go?
I will. Thanks for your invitation.


Unfortunately, I won’t be able to come because I have made plans.
I’m sorry, I’m unable to come because I have to go up town.
I’m afraid I won’t be able to accept because I have a business.
Sorry, I can’t because I must be going now.
I’m awfully sorry, I have other plans.
Sorry, I’ve already made plans for Saturday.
Oh darn!! Have to fetch the doctor. My sister is ill.
I wish I could, but I have promised to go with my friend to downtown.
I’d really like to, but I have to finish my job first.